“There are more than 3,000 fundamental movements in Taekwon-Do, and General Choi was
very proud of this. These movements are basic elements that can be likened to musical
notes; when linked, they produce a harmonious result. These fundamental movements use
all parts of the body and are performed in harmony with the Theory of Power of Taekwon-
Do. The student will practice these movements regularly with the goal of mastering each one
of them, defensive and attack movements alike, so that they will be available when needed”
What is a Pattern?
A Pattern is a set of fundamental movements, mainly defence and attack, set in a logical
sequence to deal with one or more imaginary opponents. Patterns are an indication of a
student's progress - a barometer in evaluating an individuals technique.
A student will find that he will have to return time and time again to the beginning fundamental movements
to perfect his advanced sparring and self-defence techniques.
Each fundamental movement, in most cases, represents and attack or defence against a particular target
area or definite action of an imaginary opponent or opponents. It is necessary to learn as many
fundamental movements as possible and fit them into complete proficiency so the student can meet any
situation in actual combat with confidence. The pattern actually places the student in a hypothetical
situation where he must avail himself to defence, counterattack, and attack motions, against several
opponents. Through constant practice of these patterns, the attack and defence become a conditioned
reflex movement. Power and speed must be developed to such a high degree that only one single blow is
needed to stop an opponent, so the student can shift stance and block or attack another opponent. Each
pattern is different from the other in order to develop reaction against changing circumstances.
Once the basic patterns are mastered, the student then begins to physically apply the skill obtained from
fundamental patterns and movements to sparring against actual moving opponents.
Hand & Foot Techniques
Techniques against knife, choking, punching, kicking and grabbing.
Step & Foot Sparring
It is a prearranged sparing between two players as they agree on the rules and the number of steps to be
taken, the target to attack and to used which correct tool (fist or foot). No contact as the purpose of Step or
Foot Sparing is to develop control between two players. Step Sparring consist of 1, 2 or 3-step.
There are no steps or prearranged movements; it consist of open combat between two or more players with
controlled attacks using all available methods and techniques to execute.
Free sparring is based on accuracy, speed, timing, distance, and quality of technique. Balance, blocking and
foot work skills, and attitude are also very important.
Each player is free to move and attack; it encourages the development of strategies for attack and defence.
Since free sparring is practiced as a non-stop fight that may consist of one, two or three rounds, being in top
physical condition is very important.
Instills focus, accuracy, balance and use the right body weight and momentum.
The goal of breaking allows the student to develop confidence. Breaking provides the student to understand
and master the techniques to allow him or her to produce maximum power.
Special techniques are to combine athletic performance with perfect execution of techniques. These
techniques include flying techniques and can be spectacular. Height and distance of movements are
Sparring consists of six main types: step, semi-free, free , model , foot , and
Step-Sparring, two students work together to perform a set of prearranged techniques. Movement are
with one-step, two-step or three-step. Primary emphasis should be on proper form.
Semi-Free Sparring (free one-step), usually involves the same techniques as in step-sparring, but the
attacker and defender are allowed to move around in free-sparring stances until the moment of
attack/defense. The completion of the attack and the counter should still be in the full basic form.
Free-Sparring, two students fight each other using all permitted techniques in any combination they
choose. In competition, a referee control a free-sparring match and the referee and corner judges
awards points and determine the winner. In training, many pairs of students may free-spar simultaneously
under the supervision of the instructor and assistants. This form of free-sparring is a learning
experience, so the sparring students judge themselves.
Foot Sparring is used to improve techniques by forcing the students to use their feet for both attack
and defense. By limiting techniques to the feet, students are able to perfect the use.
Model Sparring This is chiefly used for demonstration purposes but it is also very useful for students to
see how techniques, how they should be used and if the techniques is actually the correct one for the
particular situation. Model Sparring is performed between two people, the moves will be agreed
previously. The attacker and defender performs the demonstration at normal speed
first then repeats the demonstration in slow motion.
Pre-Arranged Free The players decide what kind of attacks that will be used, how often and how many
allowed before an attack must be made. All the variables can be adjusted, only kicks to a
particular target, or a particular attacking tool must be only be used, or attackers must alternate
between "one attack one defence one attack one defence and so on".